I was awarded a PhD after completing research involving the study of the contribution of detective training to practice before arriving at Canterbury Christ Church University in 2002. Since then I have contributed to the development of the policing curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate level and publishing on a range of policing issues. I founded the Canterbury Centre for Policing Research (CCPR) and I am currently the Director of Research & Enterprise for the School and Adjunct Associate Professor at Charles Sturt University and Visiting Fellow at Anglia Ruskin University. I contribute to teaching on undergraduate and postgraduate programmes as well as supervising student research (BSc, MA, MSc and PhD). I have been involved in research ranging from the work of detectives, trainee police officers, restorative justice in prisons, professional perspectives on the impact of Brexit on security/police cooperation and strategic police leadership across Europe. I am interested in new opportunities for research in policing and the criminal justice sector. I would be delighted to receive requests for PhD supervision in topics related to criminal justice and policing. For supervision enquiries or research colloboration please contact me directy via email firstname.lastname@example.org
Research and knowledge exchange
- Ongoing research: BTP Policing Pillars (with Ian Durrant)
- Ongoing research: Professional perspectives on the impact of Brexit on security/police cooperation (with Paul Swallow)
- Ongoing research: Counter terrorism strategies in the UK: the importance of public perception (with Katarina Mozova)
- 2016 - 2018: Exploring the experiences and impact of police officers completing advanced detective training (with Martin O'Neill)
- 2016 - 2017: Principal Investigator Emma Williams, Co-Investigator Steve Tong, College of Policing recognition of prior learning and experience for existing officers and staff - knowledge exchange.
- 2012 - 2014 Co-researcher with colleague Dr Bryn Caless examining the views of 108 strategic police officers across Europe in relation to police co-operation, risk, accountability and challenges in the future across 22 countries.
- 2012 - 2013 Invited as part of a CCCU team to write a paper for the Independent Commission into Policing led by Lord Stevens on training and police education.
- 2012 As part of a CCCU team I contributed to the submission of a paper on police training and education commissioned by HEA.
- 2012 Led on a CCCU submission to the Home Affairs Committee Inquiry into 'Leadership and Standards in the Police Service'.
- 2011 Contributed with Dominic Wood to an invitation for consultation following the Review of Police Training and Leadership (the Neyroud Review) on the behalf of the Department for Law & Criminal Justice.
- 2009 with D. Wood & R. Bryant 'Wiki' articles funded by the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA).
- 2009 Nuffield Foundation: Social Science Small Grant Award. Successful application to fund an evaluation into adult prison/victim RJ mediation.
Teaching and subject expertise
I teach on a variety of policing subjects but have a particular interest in police reform, police education and training, police professionalization, criminal investigation and qualitative research. I am associated with the following committees/editorial boards/networks:
- Series Editor: Policy Press Key Themes in Policing Series (with Dr Megan O'Neill and Dr Marisa Silvestri)
- International Advisory Board of the Portuguese Journal of Police Sciences
- Guest Editor with Prof Tracey Green Special Edition Policing: A Journal of Police and Practice
- Editorial Advisory Board: Law, Crime, Justice & Society Journal
- Editorial Board: The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles
- Member of the Society of Evidence Based Policing
- Member of British Society Policing Network
- Member of the HE Forum for Learning and Development in Policing
- Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
- Member British Society of Criminology (BSC)
Other Academic Activities
- I have served as an external panel member for validation events for undergraduate/postgraduate criminology and policing programmes for the University of Brighton, Northampton University, South Bank University, Open University Validation Service, University of Glamorgan, Middlesex University and Edinburgh Napier University.
- External examiner roles include the Edge Hill University (2017-2020), University of Kent (2015-2019), University of South Wales (2012-2017), University of Leicester (2011-2015), University of Central Lancashire (2011-2015) and Southampton Solent University (2008-2012).
- External Examiner Professional Doctorate at University of Portsmouth, PhD: Durham University, University of South Wales, University of Huddersfield, University of Portsmouth, Middlesex University and University of Surrey. I also act as Internal Examine/Chair at Canterbury Christ Church University vivas.
Tong. S & O'Neill, M (2018) 'Professionalising criminal investigation: an examination of early attempts to professionalise detectives’ European Police Research Institutes Collaboration (EPiC) Annual Conference, University of Portsmouth 14-15th June 2018.
Tong, S (2017) ‘Police and Higher Education: prospects and challenges II workshop’, Scottish Institute for Policing Research (SIPR) Annual Conference - Policing and Professionalisation: opportunities and challenges, 14th December 2017, INVITED SPEAKER
Tong, D (2017) 'Sink or Swim: A Case Study of Detective Training', MSC Sociology and Criminology annual conference, University of Surrey, 24-25th November 2017, INVITED SPEAKER
Mozova. K & Tong, S (2017) Public fear of terrorism and counter-terrorism awareness, Tuesday 14th November, New Scotland Yard, London, Metropolitan Black Police Association. INVITED SPEAKER
Tong, S (2017) ‘Professionalising criminal investigation: an examination of early attempts to professionalise detectives in the United Kingdom’, Academy of Criminal Justice Science Conference, Kansas City, USA,
Tong, S (2017) ‘Art, Craft and Science of Policing’, Bridgewater State University INVITED SPEAKER
Tong, S (2017) ‘Evidence-based policing, professionalization and challenges to policing Britain’, Bridgewater State University INVITED SPEAKER
Tong, S (2017) ‘Conducting research into European Policing' German Police University, Munster, Germany, Thursday 9th March 2017. INVITED SPEAKER
Tong, S (2016) ‘Professionalising policing: seeking viable and sustainable approaches to police education’ European Police Research and Science Conference CEPOL ‘Global Trends in Law Enforcement and Training’, Budapest 5-7th October.
Tong, S (2016) ‘Learning from Mistakes? Policing Under Siege: An examination of high profile criticisms of policing and potential responses’. Thursday 21st July, New Scotland Yard, London, Metropolitan Black Police Association. INVITED SPEAKER
Tong, S (2016) ‘Professionalising policing: challenges in the role of education’, British Society of Criminology, Nottingham Conference Centre 6th-8th July.
Tong. S (2016) ‘Police Reform workshop: Professionalisation through Education’ European Police Research Institutes Collaboration (EPiC) Annual Conference 2016 30, June -1st July, Cardiff University
Tong. S (2016) ‘The History of Criminal Investigation’, Norwegian Police University College, Oslo, January 2016, INVITED SPEAKER.
Silvestri, M & Tong, S (2015) ‘Women and Police Leadership: a European insight’, European Society of Criminology, 2-5th September 2015, Porto, Portugal.
Tong, S (2014) ‘Police education in England and Wales: a changing landscape’, Police Professionalism, Education and Learning (sponsored by the Scottish Institute for Policing Research), ProPEL Conference of Professional Practice, Education and Learning, 24-27th June, University of Stirling, INVITED SPEAKER
Tong, S (2013) ‘Evolving partnership and collaboration’, for the College of Policing conference ‘Growing Police and Academic Partnerships’, November 28th 2013, Bramshill, Hampshire. INVITED SPEAKER.
Publications and research outputs
Heaton.R, Bryant.R & Tong.S (2018) ‘Operational Risk, Omissions and Liability in Policing’, The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles.
Tong.S & Hallenberg.K (2018) ‘Education and the police professionalisation agenda: a perspective from England & Wales’ in C.Rogers & B.Frevel (eds) Higher Police Education – An International Perspective, Springer International. http://www.springer.com/gb/book/9783319644080
Tong.S (2017) Professionalising policing: seeking viable and sustainable approaches to police education and learning, CEPOLScience Bulletin. https://bulletin.cepol.europa.eu/index.php/bulletin/article/view/291
Wood.D, Cockcroft.T, Tong.S & Bryant.R (2017) ‘The importance of context and cognitive agency in developing police knowledge: going beyond the police science discourse' The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles http://create.canterbury.ac.uk/15612/
Heaton.R & Tong.S (2016) ‘Evidence-Based Policing: From Effectiveness to Cost-Effectiveness’, Policing: A Journal for Policy and Practice, advanced publication, Volume10Issue1 March2016, pp. 60-70 http://create.canterbury.ac.uk/13751/
Brunger.M, Martin.D & Tong.S (eds) (2015) Introduction to Policing Research: Taking Lessons from Practice, Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/products/9781138013292
Caless.B & Tong.S (2015) Leading Policing in Europe: An Empirical Study of Police Leadership, Policy Press. http://policypress.co.uk/leading-policing-in-europe
Caless.B & Tong.S (2015) ‘Leadership Policing in Europe: An empirical study on police leadership’, European Police Science and Research Bulletin, Issue12 Summer: 13-17. http://create.canterbury.ac.uk/13549/
Bryant.R, Cockcroft.T, Tong.S & Wood.D (2013) ‘Police Training and Education: Past, Present and Future’, in Brown,J (ed) The Future of Policing, Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/products/9780415821629
Silvestri.M, Tong.S & Brown.J (2013) 'Gender and Police Leadership: Time for a Paradigm Shift?', International Journal of Police Science and Management, 15(1):61-72. http://create.canterbury.ac.uk/12667/
Alys.L, Massey.K & Tong.S (2013) ‘Investigative Decision Making: Missing People and Sexual Offences, Crossroads to an Uncertain Future’, Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 10(1):140-154. http://create.canterbury.ac.uk/11231/
Tong.S & Wood.D (2011) Graduate Police Officers: Releasing the Potential for Pre-employment University Programmes for Aspiring Police Officers, The Police Journal, 84(1):69-75. http://create.canterbury.ac.uk/11234/
Horvath.M. A. H, Tong.S & Williams.E (2011) ‘'Critical Issues in Rape Investigation: A UK Perspective’ Journal of Criminal Justice Research, 1(2), http://create.canterbury.ac.uk/11238/