By the 19th century the separation between gaols and Houses of Correction had diminished and was formally abolished in 1865. The prison was then required to combine both of these functions.
By at least 1835 the prison was equipped with a treadwheel and this was the main form of labour for prisoners.
The treadwheel was used to pump water for nearby Kent and Canterbury Hospital.
Prisoners worked nine hour days on the treadwheel and exhaustion combined with a lack of safety often led to accidents. In 1886 William Scamp had his left hand amputated after catching it in the machinery.