Staff Profile


Dr Steve Tong

Reader in Policing and Criminal Justice

School: School of Law Criminal Justice and Computing

Campus: Canterbury

Tel: 01227 921790

Profile summary

I was awarded a PhD after completing research involving the study of the contribution of detective training to practise before moving to Canterbury Christ Church University in 2002. Since then I have contributed to the development of the policing curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate level and publishing on a range of policing issues. I am currently the Director of the Canterbury Centre for Policing Research (CCPR), Acting Director of Research & Enterprise for the school and Adjunct Associate Professor at Charles Sturt University and Visiting Fellow at Anglia Ruskin University. I contribute to teaching on undergraduate and postgraduate programmes as well as supervising student research (BSc, MA, MSc and PhD). I have been involved in research ranging from the work of detectives, trainee police officers, restorative justice in prisons, professional perspectives on the impact of Brexit on security/police cooperation and strategic police leadership across Europe.  I am interested in new opportunities  for research in the policing and the criminal justice sector.  I would be delighted to receive requests for PhD supervision in topics related to criminal justice and policing. For supervision enquiries or research colloboration please contact me directy via email

Research and knowledge exchange

  • Ongoing research: Counter terrorism strategies in the UK: the importance of public perception
  • Ongoing research: Exploring the experiences and impact of police officers completing advanced detective training
  • 2016 - 2017: Principal Investigator Emma Williams, Co-Investigator Steve Tong, College of Policing recognition of prior learning and experience for existing officers and staff - knowledge exchange.
  • 2012 - 2014 Co-researcher with colleague Dr Bryn Caless examining the views of 108 strategic police officers across Europe in relation to police co-operation, risk, accountability and challenges in the future across 22 countries.
  • 2012 - 2013 Invited as part of a CCCU team to write a paper for the Independent Commission into Policing led by Lord Stevens on training and police education.
  • 2012 As part of a CCCU team I contributed to the submission of a paper on police training and education commissioned by HEA.
  • 2012 Led on a CCCU submission to the Home Affairs Committee Inquiry into 'Leadership and Standards in the Police Service'.
  • 2011 Contributed with Dominic Wood to an invitation for consultation following the Review of Police Training and Leadership (the Neyroud Review) on the behalf of the Department for Law & Criminal Justice.
  • 2009 with D. Wood & R. Bryant 'Wiki' articles dunded by for National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA).
  • 2009 Nuffield Foundation: Social Science Small Grant Award. Successful application to fund an evaluation into adult prison/victim RJ mediation.
  • 2004 Submitted a report to the National Crime Faculty on the findings of my PhD research 'Training the Effective detective.'
  • 1999 Working with Dr Ben Bowling reviewing the best value evaluation of the MPS Anti-Corruption and Discipline.
  • 1999 - 2002 National Crime Faculty (A Division of National Police Training) Studentship Award to support doctoral research 'Training the effective detective'.
  • 1999 - 2002 Economic and Social Research Council: Research Studentship Award to support doctoral research 'Training the effective detective'.

Teaching and subject expertise

I teach on a variety of policing subjects but have a particular interest in police reform, police education and training, police professionalization, criminal investigation and qualitative research. I am associated with the following committees/editorial boards/networks:

  • Series Editor: Policy Press Key Themes in Policing Series (with Dr Megan O'Neill and Dr Marisa Silvestri)
  • International Advisory Board of the Portuguese Journal of Police Sciences
  • Guest Editor with Prof Tracey Green Special Edition Policing: A Journal of Police and Practice
  • Editorial Advisory Board: Law, Crime, Justice & Society Journal
  • Editorial Board: The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles
  • Member of the Society of Evidence Based Policing        
  • Member of British Society Policing Network
  • Member of the HE Forum for Learning and Development in Policing
  • Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
  • Member British Society of Criminology (BSC)

Other Academic Activities

  • I have served as an external panel member for validation events for undergraduate/postgraduate criminology and policing programmes for the University of Brighton, Northampton University, South Bank University, Open University Validation Service, University of Glamorgan, Middlesex University and Edinburgh Napier University.   
  • External examiner roles include the Edge Hill University (2017-2020), University of Kent (2015-2019), University of South Wales (2012-2017), University of Leicester (2011-2015), University of Central Lancashire (2011-2015) and Southampton Solent University (2008-2012).
  • External Examiner Professional Doctorate at University of Portsmouth, PhD: Durham University, University of South Wales, University of Huddersfield, UNiversity of Portsmouth, Middlesex University and University of Surrey. I also act as Internal Examine/Chair at Canterbury Christ Church University vivas.

External activities

Tong, S (2017) ‘Police and Higher Education: prospects and challenges II workshop’, Scottish Institute for Policing Research (SIPR) Annual Conference - Policing and Professionalisation: opportunities and challenges, 14th December 2017, INVITED SPEAKER

Tong, D (2017) 'Sink or Swim: A Case Study of Detective Training', MSC Sociology and Criminology annual conference, University of Surrey, 24-25th November 2017, INVITED SPEAKER

Mozova. K & Tong, S (2017) Public fear of terrorism and counter-terrorism awareness, Tuesday 14th November, New Scotland Yard, London, Metropolitan Black Police Association. INVITED SPEAKER

Tong, S (2017) ‘Professionalising criminal investigation – an examination of early attempts to professionalise detectives in the United Kingdom’, Academy of Criminal Justice Science Conference, Kansas City, USA,

Tong, S (2017) ‘Art, Craft and Science of Policing’, Bridgewater State University INVITED SPEAKER

Tong, S (2017) ‘Evidence-based policing, professionalization and challenges to policing Britain’, Bridgewater State University INVITED SPEAKER

Tong, S (2017) ‘Conducting research into European Policing' German Police University, Munster, Germany, Thursday 9th March 2017. INVITED SPEAKER

Tong, S (2016) ‘Professionalising policing: seeking viable and sustainable approaches to police education’ European Police Research and Science Conference CEPOL ‘Global Trends in Law Enforcement and Training’, Budapest 5-7th October.

Tong, S (2016) ‘Learning from Mistakes? Policing Under Siege:  An examination of high profile criticisms of policing and potential responses’. Thursday 21st July, New Scotland Yard, London, Metropolitan Black Police Association. INVITED SPEAKER

Tong, S (2016) ‘Professionalising policing: challenges in the role of education’, British Society of Criminology, Nottingham Conference Centre 6th-8th July.

Tong. S (2016) ‘Police Reform workshop: Professionalisation through Education’ European Police Research Institutes Collaboration (EPiC) Annual Conference 2016 30, June -1st July, University Hall Conference Centre, Cardiff University

Tong. S (2016) ‘The History of Criminal Investigation’, Norwegian Police University College, Oslo, January 2016, INVITED SPEAKER.

Silvestri, M & Tong, S (2015) ‘Women and Police Leadership: a European insight’, European Society of Criminology, 2-5th September 2015, Porto, Portugal.

Tong, S (2014) ‘Police education in England and Wales: a changing landscape’, Police Professionalism, Education and Learning (sponsored by the Scottish Institute for Policing Research), ProPEL Conference of Professional Practice, Education and Learning, 24-27th June, Stirling Management Centre, University of Stirling, INVITED SPEAKER

Tong, S (2013) ‘Evolving partnership and collaboration’, for the College of Policing conference ‘Growing Police and Academic Partnerships’, November 28th 2013, Bramshill, Hampshire. INVITED SPEAKER.

Tong, S (2013) ‘Privatisation of Agencies in the Public Sector,’ the London Practitioner Forum, London Metropolitan University, Thursday January 10th 2013, INVITED SPEAKER

Publications and research outputs

Heaton.R, Bryant.R & Tong.S (Forthcoming) ‘Operational Risk, Omissions and Liability in Policing’, The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles.

Tong.S & Hallenberg.K (2018) ‘Education and the police professionalisation agenda: a perspective from England & Wales’ in C.Rogers & B.Frevel (eds) Higher Police Education – An International Perspective, Springer International.

Tong.S (2017) Professionalising policing: seeking viable and sustainable approaches to police education and learning, CEPOLScience Bulletin.

Wood.D, Cockcroft.T, Tong.S & Bryant.R (2017) ‘The importance of context and cognitive agency in developing police knowledge: going beyond the police science discourse' The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles   

Heaton.R & Tong.S (2016) ‘Evidence-Based Policing: From Effectiveness to Cost-Effectiveness’, Policing: A Journal for Policy and Practice, advanced publication, Volume10Issue1   March2016, pp. 60-70

Brunger.M, Martin.D & Tong.S (eds) (2015) Introduction to Policing Research: Taking Lessons from Practice, Routledge.

Caless.B & Tong.S (2015) Leading Policing in Europe: An Empirical Study of Police Leadership, Policy Press.

Caless.B & Tong.S (2015) ‘Leadership Policing in Europe: An empirical study on police leadership’, European Police Science and Research Bulletin, Issue12 Summer: 13-17.

Bryant.R, Cockcroft.T, Tong.S & Wood.D (2013) ‘Police Training and Education: Past, Present and Future’, in Brown,J (ed) The Future of Policing, Routledge.

Silvestri.M, Tong.S & Brown.J (2013) 'Gender and Police Leadership: Time for a Paradigm Shift?', International Journal of Police Science and Management, 15(1):61-72.

Alys.L, Massey.K & Tong.S (2013) ‘Investigative Decision Making: Missing People and Sexual Offences, Crossroads to an Uncertain Future’, Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 10(1):140-154.

Tong.S & Wood.D (2011) Graduate Police Officers: Releasing the Potential for Pre-employment University Programmes for Aspiring Police Officers, The Police Journal, 84(1):69-75.

Horvath.M. A. H, Tong.S & Williams.E (2011) ‘'Critical Issues in Rape Investigation: A UK Perspective’ Journal of Criminal Justice Research, 1(2),


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Last edited: 05/12/2017 03:59:00